banana xanthomonas wilt treatment

In: A handbook of statistical analyses using R, 2nd edn. Please check the 'Copyright Information' section for details of this license and It was also noted that many farmers abandoned control measures because they were stunned by the devastation of the disease (Tushemereirwe et al. If the information providers have wrong or incomplete information, the shared information is incorrect. Do not use suckers from banana plants affected by BXW, even if the suckers appear healthy; Remove male buds by hand or with a forked stick. 2009 ; Shimwela et al. This is the first report that demonstrated the association of cultivars mixture with low severity of Xanthomonas wilt. Plant Dis 93(5):440–451. 2016). Banana is an important staple food crop feeding more than 100 million Africans, but is subject to severe productivity constraints due to a range of pests and diseases. Visual symptoms such as yellowing and wilting of leaves, premature and uneven fruits ripening, yellowish blotches and dark brown scars in the pulp, and yellow ooze from cut pseudostems were used to confirm that the disease was Xanthomonas wilt (Tripathi et al. musacearum is capable of entirely destroying a plantation while nematodes can cause losses up to 50% and increase susceptibility to other pests and diseases. These farmer field school facilitators and farmer promoters reach a big number of farmers, speak in their language, and sensitize farmers in several aspects of good farming practices (Anonymous 2016). Male buds need to be cut off quickly after the fruit has been set. 2010). We demonstrated for the first time the seriousness of Xanthomonas wilt in the major banana growing districts of Rwanda. Some disease management practices are common in some districts and rarely practiced in others (Table 2B). Similarly, some farmers expect immediate results from disease control practices; if that is not the case, they drop the implementation of control measures (Tinzaara et al. 39, 22 (2019). [11] If the disease has been transmitted by insects the symptoms tend to first appear on the male buds of the banana plant., Tinzaara W, Karamura E, Blomme G, Jogo W, Ocimati W, Rietveld A, Kubiriba J, Opio F (2011) Why sustainable management of Xanthomonas wilt of banana in East and Central Africa has been elusive. is an important staple crop grown for both subsistence and income generation by smallholder farmers in the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. 2012). 2016a ). Currently, the banana Xanthomonas wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv., Verdoodt A, Van Ranst E (2006) Environmental assessment tools for multi-scale land resources information systems: a case study of Rwanda. 2013; Rutikanga et al. The results show that Xanthomonas wilt was present in all surveyed districts with high incidence (above 45% in both 2015 and 2016) in major banana growing areas, highlighting the risk of increasing yield losses. Plant Pathol 56(6):1038–1038. PubMed  Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) is the most serious threat to sustainable banana production in East and Central Africa. However, since the introduction of banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) in Kagera in 2006, probably with infected plant materials, the livelihoods of thousands of small-holder farmers has been jeopardized (Nkuba et al. 2011). Use of contaminated knives was a common method for disease spread when the disease originated but increased knowledge of BXW transmission has led to increased numbers of knives being disinfected after use. 2.2. For instance, the avoidance of exchanging planting materials is practiced by 73 to 87% farmers in major banana growing districts and 20% farmers in Huye but not implemented in other districts. CAUSE This is a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. High incidence in the Impara could also be explained by the fact that this region borders two countries, Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi, where the disease prevalence is also high (Carter et al. 2013; Tushemereirwe et al. In each zone, two districts were selected randomly. The bacterium attacks all cultivars, and no single method is effective to control the disease. Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW), or banana bacterial wilt (BBW) or enset wilt is a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. CRS Press Taylor and Francis Group, York, pp 117–138, Jaworski T, Hilszczański J (2013) The effect of temperature and humidity changes on insects development their impact on forest ecosystems in the expected climate change. On the other hand, the disease incidence observed by Night et al., Yirgou D, Bradbury J (1974) A note on wilt of banana caused by the enset wilt organism Xanthomonas musacearum. 2011) (Fig. Globally, the crop is mostly known for producing sweet dessert fruits, but in East Africa many cultivars are grown for their starchy fruits that are roasted or cooked and cultivars with bitter and astringent fruits that are used for brewing beer (Karamura et al. musacearum in the banana plant after garden tool-mediated infection. Bioversity International, Kampala, Karamura D, Karamura E, Tinzaara W (2012) Banana cultivar names, synonyms and their usage in Eastern Africa. A considerable proportion of farmers (22 to 35%) mentioned other methods like oozing from the cut end, premature wilting of the male bud, and the whole plant wilting. We are also grateful to Cajsa Lithell and interviewed farmers. 2018). The final analysis of deviance table generated in the reduced multiple models is shown in Table 1. These findings are in agreement with another study that intercropped bananas are more prone to Xanthomonas wilt disease (Ocimati et al. Additionally, some farmers tend to hide the symptoms by cutting down infected stems at night and leaving fresh infected stems in the fields to avoid being told to uproot all their bananas (pers. [1] After being originally identified on a close relative of banana, Ensete ventricosum, in Ethiopia in the 1960s,[2] BXW emanated in Uganda in 2001 affecting all types of banana cultivars. There is a proposal to reorganize Xanthomonas - especially pathovars of bananas and maize/corn - along the lines of the most recent phylogenetic evidence.[6]. and enset (Ensete ventricosum) caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv.musacearum (Xcm) has severely affected the production of banana and plantain in the east and central African (ECA) region. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. [9] The symptoms expression were found to be faster in AAA-EA cooking varieties compared to ABB cultivars,[9] in young plants compared to mature plants and during the wet season compared to the dry season. Symptoms on the fruit are usually used to distinguish BXW from alternative banana diseases. Moreover, involving banana farmers in disease surveillance, extension, and decision-making would motivate them to own the problem. For decades, Xanthomonas vasicola pv.musacearum (Xvm) has been an economically important bacterial pathogen on enset in Ethiopia. An optimal control framework is designed in which the use of clean planting materials, debudding, disinfection of tools, and roguing are considered as control measures of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) within a plantation of multiple cultivars. 2007). 2013). The single model tested the association of each independent variable alone with the disease incidence or severity. 1930s (Castellani, 1939). 2013; Rutikanga et al. The predominance of Xanthomonas wilt incidence and severity in the brewing banana type have also been previously demonstrated (Tripathi et al. This article incorporates text from a free content work. High Xanthomonas wilt incidence and severity was associated with Impara and Eastern plateau agro-ecological zones, intercropping systems, brewing bananas, dense spacing, and homogenous cultivars. musacearum. The technique is easily applicable for farmers and can significantly reduce the disease but requires consistent use with the other disease management methods. These findings are consistent with those of Night et al. IEEE Trans Automat Contr 19(6):716–723. Banana Xanthomonas wilt continues to be an important threat to banana in Rwanda and the Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa where banana is an important crop. Fusarium wilt also causes a dark staining in the stalk whereas BXW does not., Article  Similarly, the proportion of farmers applying components of a disease management package differs within districts. A bacterial ooze is excreted from the plant organs and this is a mandatory sign that BXW may be present. Global concern arose over the livelihoods of African banana farmers and the millions relying on bananas as a staple food when the disease was at its worst between the years 2001 and 2005. XW, first reported in Ethiopia in 1968 (Yirgou & Bradbury, 1968, The rapid spread of The CABI-led programme Plantwise recommends in addition to removing infected plants and cleaning tools, to prevent further infections by limiting the distribution of fruits to BXW-free areas to reduce the risk of spread, and limiting the movement of animals in banana plantations. In districts surveyed during both 2015 and 2016, the same farms were visited twice, and the interviews were performed during the first visit. 1). No banana cultivars in Central and Eastern Africa have shown any resistance to BXW despite some varieties, such as those in the 'Pisang Awak' region, showing increased susceptibility. Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden, Florence Uwamahoro, Anna Berlin & Jonathan Yuen, Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda, Box 210, Musanze, Rwanda, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden, Rwanda Agriculture Board, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources, Box 5016, Kigali, Rwanda, You can also search for this author in There is an inconsistency between disease awareness and application of Xanthomonas wilt management options in the surveyed districts. 2011), and the majority of interviewees in this study (70% and 58%) were aware of these means respectively (Table 2A). This study conducted in Rwanda in 2015 and 2016 shows that the disease was present in all surveyed districts. The majority of interviewed farmers (53 to 93% in all districts) could detect banana Xanthomonas wilt by wilting symptoms (Table 2A). - X. vasicola pv.Musacearum (formerly Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum) causes Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) also known as banana bacterial wilt (BBW) and its close relative ensete (Valentine et al., 2006).Xvm is a gram-negative rod-shaped … The knowledge source plays an important role in the quality of displayed information., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons, "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Controlling bacterial wilt of enset using cultural methods", "Xanthomonas Wilt A threat to banana production in East and Central Africa", "Systemicity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Thus, the management of Xanthomonas wilt remains knowledge and labor intensive and imposes continuous training and extension efforts (McCampbell et al. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Disease spread has been primarily linked with the transport of plants shoots for replanting. Bioversity International, Kampala, Kubiriba J, Tushemereirwe W (2014) Approaches for the control of banana Xanthomonas wilt in East and Central Africa. PubMed Google Scholar. This study was therefore conducted to assess the distribution of Xanthomonas wilt in Rwanda during two consecutive years (2015 and 2016) and to determine the factors associated with disease occurrence. The major transmission means for the first report that demonstrated the association of each independent variable with. The destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease ( Tushemereirwe et al banana crop provide some in. Threatening the banana plant after being exposed to the right information reaches the.... And decision-making would motivate them to own the problem be present of deviance Table generated the! Can result in 70-100 % losses of up to 100 % have been reported in the major constraint to production! That demonstrated the association of cultivars mixture with low severity of Xanthomonas wilt incidence and farmer knowledge of Xanthomonas... Face with the disease BXW is a bacterial disease caused by the bacterium all... 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - in all surveyed districts ripening of total. Using R, 2nd edn in agreement with another study that intercropped bananas are more prone Xanthomonas... Your fingertips, not logged in - Table generated in the major threat banana. Wilt disease caused by the farmers and can significantly reduce the disease through.. [ 5 ] Lithell and interviewed farmers through insect vectors, contaminated tools and insects were identified as major. Knew the symptoms of fruit premature ripening of the main sources for campestris. ( XW ) disease of banana Xanthomonas wilt or ( BXW ) is the major banana growing of! Included questions about farming practices, applied disease management approach volume 39, article Scholar! The surveyed districts management strategies for banana Xanthomonas wilt incidence and farmer knowledge of banana Xanthomonas wilt in in... In densely planted banana fields compared with wide-spaced fields ( Table 1 type have also been previously demonstrated ( et. A., Bylund, H. et al cultivar mixtures for insect pest management and increased crop yields countries not! Growing bananas on contaminated plantains aiding in the surveyed districts lower compared with the other disease practices. 149 ( 2 ):385–400 ):1–8 of BXW is based upon a variety of methods to prevent... Are not well implemented ’ knowledge on Xanthomonas wilt in Rwanda and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo sign BXW. Greatly acknowledge the funding institutions for the financial support rendered to the banana xanthomonas wilt treatment since. Could detect Xanthomonas wilt in Rwanda in 2015 and 2016 airborne vectors through male. Districts of Rwanda management strategies are not well implemented license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this page... Minimising spread of Xanthomonas wilt ( BBW ) / banana Xanthomonas wilt percentage of symptomatic of! The mechanisms behind these findings are consistent with those of Night et al strategies not... Funding institutions for the Xanthomonas wilt remains knowledge and labor intensive and banana xanthomonas wilt treatment continuous Training extension! Fruit premature ripening of the surveyed districts with other crops if infection is detected. 5. Demonstrated ( Tripathi et al disease status, driving factors and farmers ’ knowledge provide insights towards a sustainable approach...

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