When Roman culture was dominant, it brought with it the music and ideas of Ancient Greece, whereby the reciting of epic poetry and folk music played an integral role. After the end of Moorish Spain in 1492, this musical tradition migrated to the large cities of North Africa, such as Fez, Tlemcen, Algiers, Constantine, and Tunis. From the 8th to 15th centuries, the Moors controlled most of Spain, Sicily, Malta, and large swaths of North Africa. Boleros are popular in Spain and Spanish-speaking America. Agriculture. He perhaps is most famous in musical history for declaring that it was not possible to notate sounds, an assertion which revealed his ignorance of the notational system of ancient Greece, suggesting that this knowledge had been lost with the fall of the Roman Empire in the west. Eventually, the Moors were expelled from Spain. The hospital of Córdoba was a renowned medical school, the first of its kind in Europe, and its surgeons enjoyed international repute. Visitors to Spain's Andalusia Region can explore some of the most well-preserved, historically integral, and culturally relevant examples of Moorish architecture in all of the Iberian Peninsula. Jun 20, 2017 - Explore Brian McGee's board "Moorish", followed by 148 people on Pinterest. Its ruins still testify to its grandeur. The Alhambra, a Moorish palace and fortress in Granada, Spain, was described by poets as a "pearl set in emeralds." Islam arrived in that region with the arrival of the Moors during the 8 th century AD, and succeeded in conquering almost the entire peninsula in less than a decade. Passed on to each succeeding generation, Moorish architecture, science, and technology influenced Spanish builders, farmers, and scientists alike. It is also danced in a circle, although there are some variants in a row (for example in the islands of El Hierro and Gran Canaria) with very elegant gestures that recall the ancient Spanish court dances. 3 (2007): 863–886. Because of the labors of these translators, Arabic works such as Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine became standard textbooks, sometimes for centuries, in many European universities. But who exactly were the Moors? By the following century a school of translators had been established in Toledo, and gradually the vast majority of Islamic works were translated into Latin and later into other European languages. As the Roman Empire declined, Spain was taken over by the Visigoths - originally from Eastern Europe - who ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries. However, the golden age of Córdoba was to be short-lived. The seventh and eighth centuries were a time of enormous political and religious upheavals in the Middle East and in the Mediterranean region. Moorish architecture is the articulated Islamic architecture of northern Africa and parts of Spain and Portugal, where the Moors were dominant between 711 and 1492. Expelled from Spain some 500 years ago, the Moors left behind a lasting heritage still observed in the buildings, the music, and even the animals of Spain. Arrullos are sung by mothers or nannies while holding the baby in their arms, or when they are rocking the baby in a cradle to sleep. Surgical instruments were surprisingly similar to ones in use today. Moorish Spain —A Remarkable Legacy. Manufactured in Damascus by the end of the eighth century, it swiftly replaced papyrus throughout the Islamic empire. These advances, together with the adoption of the triangular sail used for generations by Arab dhows, were to be important contributions to the great voyages of discovery in the 15th century. I will not get into detail about their empire in this article. Much emphasis was given to curative medicine and the use of herbal remedies. Musical genres include: pasacáis or pasacalles, muñeires, muliñeira or molinera, rondes, saltón, alborada, marcha, fandango, jota or xota, and habanera. Known in Arabic as al-Andalus, which is the origin of “Andalusia,” Spain was ruled at first from Damascus, but in the tenth century it became independent when the emir of Córdoba pronounced himself caliph, or head of state. Granada was thus the site of Moorish Spain’s final, flamboyant cultural flowering, helped by the refugees fleeing from former Muslim strongholds. 1 (2014): 27–55. History of Moors in Spain: End of the Moorish rule: After 1492, Islamic Spain ended with the Nasrid Dynasty. Moors bring the guitar to Spain as well as singing styles--even the name "flamenco." Also known as porrusalda, purrusalda, or porrue. Music in Spain Early origins of music in Spain. How did they come to influence Spain to such a large extent? Jota – Folk dance and song of Aragon, Spain, that spread to other parts of Spain. ... Moorish music was later incorporated in flamenco, and Moorish craftsmanship also survived and can be readily discerned in many a souvenir that entices the modern-day tourist. The Moorish period was one of remarkable development for science and architecture in Spain, and the eight hundred years of Islamic influence also left a rich legacy of Moorish architecture. The name parado (stopped) comes from the abrupt end of the dance. Traditional music found in Extremadura includes secular and religious songs and dances such as jotas, perantones, pasacalles, alboradas, toques procesionales (processional music), ofertorios, charrás, pindongos, tonadas festivas, alboradas and toreras. After reading Golden Age of the Moors, this book was a good addition to my learning about the North African, Northwest African Moors (would be considered Black by United States racial standards) and the Arab makeup of the Moorish Armies that invaded and conquered Medieval Spain. Meanwhile, many of its imposing castles still stand vigil as mute witnesses of a grandeur that is no more. There are tons of powerful booksout there that you can read to learn about the “Moorish Empire”. In Cuba, Spanish influences mixed with African elements gave birth to the Cuban bolero, a very slow 4/4 rhythm, accompanied by maracas and bongos. This book is a very interesting read about the Moors. With the possible exception of Constantinople, tenth-century Córdoba, with some 500,000 inhabitants, was the most populous city of Europe. A Spanish / … A notable geographical and astronomical work, written by al-Idrisi who studied in Córdoba, appeared in the 12th century. From then the Moors ruled Spain for 800 years allowing African royals and other leaders to influence many aspects of Spanish society. It has been described as the “most beautiful Moslem temple in the world.”. North African horses were crossed with the Iberian steeds to produce what has been called the oldest recorded breed in the world, the magnificent Andalusian. Moorish Spain, if no worse than the other Muslim-controlled societies of its time, was certainly no better. Gardens, waterfalls, and ornamental lakes adorned the city, while an aqueduct brought fresh water in abundance to supply the fountains and public baths, which numbered as many as 700 according to one Muslim chronicler. The dance has a lot in common with the mainland Spanish fandango. What happened to them? Moorish Gypsy can be seen at local community haflas, fundraisers, city fairs, and the Eno River Festival in July. So it is that, wherever the tourist may wander, the sights and sounds of modern Spain may well be the echoes of this bygone civilization whose glory has passed but whose legacy to Spain and, indeed, to the world is remarkable. As an educator, my primary goal is preserving cultural dance and history, while promoting a positive and healthy body image for women and young girls. Arrullos – A type of lullabies found in Spain and Spanish-speaking America. Before long, it was being produced in Spain, and thanks to this new process, there was a great increase in book production in Córdoba and other Spanish cities. Performed usually by one or more couples and consisting of hopping steps in 3/4 time. Reportedly, a Chinese prisoner captured by the Arabs taught them the art of making paper from rags. Celtic music is primarily found in northwestern Spain, in Galicia and Asturias, although Celtic music acts can be found throughout the rest of the country. Christians vs. Muslims: Last Battlefield (03:59) Granada was the last capital of Moorish al-Andalus and the last hold-out against the Christian onslaught. It was able to do so, without losing its spirit, going on to conquer new and greater audiences. Their influence can be seen throughout Southern Spain cities from the food to the music and especially, the architecture. Their senses have not deceived them. Musical instruments used include the gaita asturiana (Asturian bagpipe), drums and accordion. They combine the influences of traditional Spanish culture with the distinct features of Islamic architecture. See more ideas about Moorish, African history, Black history. Many of these crops would later be taken to the Americas by Spanish and Portuguese settlers. The invaders are generally called “Moors,” irrespective of their country of origin.*. Moorish architecture has specific elements which not only carry on into the music of the time, but also became an inspiration to painters of Spain’s Golden Age and were taken up again in music, poetry and art of the 19th and 20th centuries. Eric Calderwood, “The Invention of al-Andalus: Discovering the Past and Creating the Present in Granada’s Islamic Tourism Sites,” Journal of North African Studies 19, no. Visitors can hear Spaniards unwittingly invoke Allah, using the common idiomatic expression, “ojalá,” which originally was wa-sa Alláh, or “would to Allah.”, Islam—‘Transmission Belt for Technology’, The Moorish occupation of Spain was to have enduring consequences for the rest of Europe as well. SPAIN—land of flamenco, Moorish castles, and proud caballeros—is host to a yearly influx of more than 40 million tourists. (See box, page 27.). The university was a celebrated center of learning, and the city boasted a public library containing 400,000 volumes. Spain is located in southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Portugal, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France. Twenty-seven free schools were provided to teach poor children, and there was a high standard of literacy among both girls and boys. Despite profound upheavals, Moorish music has always adapted alongside new foreign influences. Bolero – The bolero is a traditional Spanish musical air and dance at 3/4. Granada, the last Moorish kingdom, was conquered in 1492, and the Moors were expelled from the peninsula. The Moors introduced earliest versions of several instruments, including the Lute or el oud, the guitar or kithara and the Lyre. At first all this knowledge circulated in Arabic, a language unknown to most European scholars. Extremadura is a region in western Spain, bordering Portugal, which is an autonomous community comprised of the provinces of Caceres and Badajoz. Ziryab was a natural born leader and pioneer. It subsequently spread throughout the Islamic world, by the ninth century probably reaching Spain, which became the first European country to make silk. Patio de los Leones, the Alhambra palace, Granada, Intricate Moorish ornamentation in the Alhambra palace, Granada, An ornamented dome ceiling in the Mosque (Mezquita) of Córdoba, Some of the more than 800 marble columns in the Mosque of Córdoba, The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah’s Kingdom—2014. When listening to the haunting music of flamenco, admiring the Andalusian stallions in local fiestas, or surveying the views from a Moorish embattlement, discerning visitors perceive something different in Spanish culture. Especially during the period when Christendom’s kingdoms in northern Spain were gradually incorporating the Muslim states to the south, Moorish Spain served as an intermediary between East and West, facilitating the diffusion of Oriental culture, science, and technology throughout Europe and beyond. In the sixth century, Saint Isidore of Seville recorded the first information about the early music of the Christian church. a visit to it absolved the faithful from the obligation to make the Arabian pilgrimage.” Visitors today still marvel at its magnificent forest of marble columns (there are about 850) and ornate arches. The Moorish legacy can still be seen in modern Spain. Other Oriental innovations such as the windmill and the use of gunpowder also found their way into Europe, apparently by means of this Islamic “transmission belt.”. Arab Andalusian (música andalusí) is the term use to define the classical Arabic music of Medieval Al-Andalus, which was the name given to Muslim-occupied Spain as well as current North African classical Arabic music. Bolero Viejo (old bolero) is a type of bolero from Spain. They invaded the Iberian peninsula in 711, defeating the Visigoths, and established their rule for almost 800 years. Boabdil, the last Nasrid King handed over the keys of the city of Granada to the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon, on January 2, 1492 . Men and women who participate in pilgrimages dance it in couples. . Scattered throughout the city stood sumptuous palaces, one of which, Al-Zahra, on the outskirts of Córdoba, took 25 years and the toil of 10,000 workers to complete. “Islām also provided a transmission belt for some of the technology of the ancient civilizations of East and South Asia, especially those of India and China.”. Arroró – Spanish lullaby, also found in Spanish-speaking America. Al-Andalus is the name given to the Iberian Peninsula when it was under Muslim rule. Guitar, bandurria and percussion accompany the dancers. As an example, compare MCMLXXXVIII with the Arabic-based system—1988! This vast Muslim empire, equaling its Roman counterpart in extent, was religious as well as political. But the impact of Moorish culture was to remain.
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